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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

As journal, Learning and Instruction provides a platform for the publication of the most advanced scientific research in the areas of learning, development, instruction and teaching. The journal welcomes original empirical investigations. For manuscripts with an innovative or weighty methodology section, supplementary on-line material outlining the methodology is welcome (e.g., equations, data-treatment, syntax code, example data). The papers may represent a variety of theoretical perspectives and different methodological approaches. They may refer to any age level, from infants to adults and to a diversity of learning and instructional settings, from classroom to informal learning. They may rest on the full spectrum of established methodologies, from laboratory experiments to field observations. The major criteria in the review and the selection process concern the significance of the contribution to the area of learning and instruction. Pure method studies (e.g., instrument validation) and meta-analyses (i.e., studies of published studies), are more suitable for other specialized journals. Descriptions of learning environments (e.g., curriculum plans) are more suitable for practitioner journals. Studies which rely overly on self-report measures are typically not accepted.

Rigor of studies

Empirical research
Empirical research designs needs to state the extent to which the studies are representative of a particular population. The authors need to state the hierarchical structure of the data (e.g., time-points nested in students, nested in schools) and explicitly state how they have addressed this structure in their analyses. Supplementary materials including data quality control, alternative models, explicit formulas used in statistical analyses and modeling are welcome. Prior publications based on the same project and/or data must be acknowledged, especially prior publications using the same or similar measures. The unique contributions of a given manuscript as well as any overlap with prior publications based on the same project and/or data must be stated explicitly

Experimental designs
Experimental designs should report on effect sizes found in previous studies in the field, to form a basis for a priori power calculations (or simulations) for the authors' particular design. Statements of implementation fidelity and treatment need to be explicit. Authors should demonstrate that findings are not due to extreme cases or outliers. 

Qualitative studies
Studies in which qualitative methods are used are required to outline sufficient/adequate/specific procedural explanation to ascertain whether the standards for validity and reliability of the reported data are met, and an adequate vocabulary for these needs to be adhered to consistently. Procedures for e.g., inter-observer reliability, triangulation and/or audit trails need to be transparent and thoroughly grounded in the literature. Overly descriptive studies are typically not accepted.

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Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

  • There is an opportunity to provide a statement of author responsibilities ("CRediT"). Such statements could be particularly useful for e.g., for doctoral students preparing a "dissertations by publication", and their submitted manuscript constitutes a part of that planned dissertation.

All necessary files have been uploaded:
Manuscript:
• Include keywords 
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations

  • Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
  • Note that submitted manuscripts will not go through language-focused copy editing with the journal prior to or after acceptance; language-focused copy editing is the responsibility of the authors prior to submission
  • Please prepare the manuscript for masked review; whenever possible, please use author names and references for self-citations but make sure that you use third person to discuss the work (see Review Policy below); please use "Authors, date" only if a self-citation by name would reveal your identity (e.g., if you are citing unpublished work, work in progress, IRB approval, etc.).

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. 

Submission declaration
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder. In instances where authors prepare multiple submissions using the same dataset or sue partially overlapping variables in two or more articles, this needs to be declared upfront in the letter to the editor. Masked reference(s) to previous studies based on the same dataset need to be included in the manuscript itself so the reader can understand the novelty of new study in relation to the previous articles. Please consult the APA-manual on piecemeal publications.In cases where the manuscript is part of a larger project (e.g., prospective longitudinal study, an intervention study with numerous arms, etc.) in which other partly overlapping publications already exist, or are planned in parallel to the submitted manuscript, need to be declared in the accompanying letter to the editor. Authors are asked to be upfront declaring such manuscripts. A manuscript may be returned if the degree of overlap is found to be too large.

Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'her/his' instead of 'she' or 'her', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess'), or particular attributes of a person (e.g., ‘student with special educational needs’ instead of ‘disabled student’). Please consult the APA-manual.

Author contributions

For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. 

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page from the Journal Homepage for more information.

Review Policy
This journal has adopted a double blind reviewing policy, where both the referee and author remain anonymous throughout the process. Please remove all identifying features from the paper itself, ensuring that Authors' identity is not revealed. However, this does not preclude Authors from citing their own works. However, Authors must cite their works in a manner that does not make explicit their identity.

Acceptable: "Brown (2005) has indicated that . . ."

Acceptable: "Some scholars have indicated that . . . (e.g., Brown, 2005; Green, 2008)"

Unacceptable: "As we have indicated (Brown, 2005), . . ."

Unacceptable: "In a previous study (Brown, 2005), we have indicated that . . ."

Abstract
A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum 150 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

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